Bipolar Diagnosis

There is no simple answer on what causes bipolar disorder according to Andrade et al. (2021), and disparities from the presence of psychotic symptoms in bipolar manic episodes were associated to male gender and younger age but not to indirect measures of illness severity.

Bipolar disorders are a serious mental illness characterized by excessive mood swings and can include extreme excitement episodes or extreme depressive feelings. Bipolar disorder lasts for a lifetime, with treatments aiming at managing the symptoms by psychotherapy and medication.

Additional research from (Mind Matters Institute [MMI], 2021) has shown family history, environmental influence, stressful life events, or biological factors play a role. Bipolar is a mental disorder caused by structural and changes in the brain or changes in genes. Affected individuals experience episodes of both depression and episodes of mania.

According to further analysis from (MMI, 2021), Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) help individuals identify what triggers episodes and problem-solving techniques that can reduce the chances of relapse. These treatments can help individuals with bipolar minimize the types of stress that can lead to hospitalization.

Cognitive function is impaired in depressive disorders. The presence of psychotic symptoms is highest during acute episodes of bipolar mania. There is no evidence base regarding the implications of psychosis in the prognosis of bipolar disorder, despite common assumption that their occurrence reflects greater disease severity (Andrade, et al., 2021).


Andrade, F., Machado, A. S., Vieira, A., & Silva, A. (2021). Bipolar mania with psychosis vs without psychosis: A clinical characterization with indirect measures of severity. European Psychiatry, 64, S82-S83.

Mind Matters Institute. (2021, March 27). Evidence-based treatments for bipolar disorder.


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